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The history of Arkansas sees the settlements of the western Mississippi, in contact with the Indian tribes, confronting very early on the question of Manifest Destiny brandished by the American President Andrew Jackson, for whom expansion towards the west was inevitable.

The question of slavery, then linked, then of the emancipation of blacks, will then dominate the political and cultural life of Arkansas.

Van Buren County was formed in November 1833, from parts of Conway, Independence and Izard counties.

Van Buren County was named for President Martin Van Buren who held the office as the county became the 29th in the state of Arkansas.

As of 2018, Van Buren County has a population of 75,448 residents.